Autonomous Region of Bougainville

The Autonomous Region of Bougainville, previously known as the North Solomons Province, is an autonomous region in Papua New Guinea. The largest island is Bougainville Island (also the largest of the Solomon Islands archipelago), and the province also includes Buka Island and assorted outlying nearby islands including the Carterets. The capital is temporarily Buka, though it is expected that Arawa will be the permanent provincial capital. The population of the province is 249,358 (2011 census).

Bougainville Island is ecologically and geographically part of the Solomon Islands archipelago but is not politically part of the nation of Solomon Islands. Buka, Bougainville, and most of the Solomons are part of the Solomon Islands rain forests ecoregion.

Autonomous Region
of Bougainville
Flag of Autonomous Regionof Bougainville
Flag
North solomons.png
Autonomous Regionof Bougainville is located in Papua New Guinea
Autonomous Regionof Bougainville
Autonomous Region
of Bougainville
Location within Papua New Guinea
Coordinates: 6°0′S 155°0′E
Country     Papua New Guinea
Capital     Buka (interim)
Districts    
List

    Central Bougainville District
    North Bougainville District
    South Bougainville District

Government
 • President     John Momis (2010-)
 • Governor     Joe Lera (2012-)
Area
 • Total     9,384 km2 (3,623 sq mi)
Population (2011 census)
 • Total     249,358
 • Density     27/km2 (69/sq mi)
Time zone     Bougainville Standard Time (UTC+11)


Contents

    1 History
        1.1 Independence (1975) to present
    2 Peace agreement and autonomy
    3 Economy
    4 Districts and LLGs
    5 See also
    6 References
    7 Further reading
    8 External links

History
Main article: History of Bougainville

The island was named after the French explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville, who made expeditions to the Pacific. (He is the namesake of the tropical flowering vines of the genus Bougainvillea). In 1885, the island was taken over by German administration as part of German New Guinea. Australia occupied it in 1914 during World War I. At the end of the war it was designated by the League of Nations as a mandatory power; it administered the island from 1918 until the Japanese invaded in 1942 during World War II.

Australia took over administration with the end of that war in 1945, managing until Papua New Guinea independence in 1975. It was appointed as a United Nations mandatory power, Australia having accepted dominion sovereignty under the Statute of Westminster 1931 in the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 and therefore being formally empowered to do so. It administered British and German New Guinea, but it was not the official colonial power.

During World War II, the island was occupied by Australian, American and Japanese forces. It was an important base for the RAAF, RNZAF and USAAF. On 8 March 1944, during the Pacific War, American forces were attacked by Japanese troops on Hill 700 on this island. The battle lasted five days, ending with a Japanese retreat.
Independence (1975) to present

The island is rich in copper and gold. A large mine was established at Panguna in the early 1970s by Bougainville Copper Limited, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto. Disputes by regional residents with the company over adverse environmental impacts, failure to share financial benefits, and negative social changes brought by the mine resulted in a local revival for a secessionist movement that had been dormant since the 1970s. Activists proclaimed the independence of Bougainville (Republic of North Solomons) in 1975 and in 1990, but at both times government forces suppressed the separatists.

In 1988, the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) increased their activity significantly. Prime Minister Sir Rabbie Namaliu ordered the Papua New Guinea Defence Force (PNGDF) to put down the rebellion, and the conflict escalated into a civil war. The PNGDF retreated from permanent positions on Bougainville in 1990, but continued military action. The conflict involved pro-independence and loyalist Bougainvillean groups as well as the PNGDF. The war claimed an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 lives.[1][2]

In 1996, Prime Minister Sir Julius Chan hired forces of Sandline International, a private military company previously involved in supplying mercenaries in the civil war in Sierra Leone, to put down the rebellion. The Sandline affair was a controversial incident that resulted from use of these mercenary troops.
Peace agreement and autonomy

The conflict ended in 1997, after negotiations brokered by New Zealand. A peace agreement was completed in 2000 and, together with disarmament, provided for the establishment of an Autonomous Bougainville Government. The parties agreed to have a referendum in the future on whether the island should become politically independent.[3]

Elections for the first autonomous government were held in May and June 2005; Joseph Kabui, an independence leader, was elected President. He died in office on 6 June 2008. After interim elections to fill the remainder of his term, John Momis was elected as president in 2010 for a five-year term. He supports autonomy within a relationship with the national government of Papua New Guinea.

On 25 July 2005 rebel leader Francis Ona died after a short illness. A former surveyor with Bougainville Copper, Ona was a key figure in the secessionist conflict and had refused to formally join the island's peace process.

In 2015 Australia announced it will establish a diplomatic post in Bougainville for the first time.[4]
Economy

Bougainville has one of the world's largest copper deposits. This has been under development since 1972; one of its reserves has almost 915 million tonnes of copper with an average grade of 0.46 % Cu. Mining and export of copper is the basis of the economy.
Districts and LLGs
District map of Bougainville (North Solomons)

Each province in Papua New Guinea has one or more districts, and each district has one or more Local Level Government (LLG) areas. For census purposes, the LLG areas are subdivided into wards, and those into census units.[5]
District     District Capital     LLG Name
Central Bougainville District     Arawa-Kieta     Arawa Rural
Wakunai Rural
North Bougainville District     Buka     Atolls Rural
Buka Rural
Kunua Rural
Nissan Rural
Selau Suir Rural
Tinputz Rural
South Bougainville District     Buin     Bana Rural
Buin Rural
Siwai Rural
Torokina Rural
See also
Autonomous Region of Bougainville
Flag of Bougainville.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Bougainville

    Monarch

        Elizabeth II

    Governor-General

        Michael Ogio

    Prime Minister

        Peter O'Neill

    Government
    President of Bougainville

        John Momis

    Vice President of Bougainville

        Patrick Nisira

    House of Representatives
    Political parties
    Elections

            General: 2005
            2010
            Presidential: 2008
            2010

    Capital

        Current: Buka
        Former: Arawa

    Other countries
    Atlas

Portal icon Politics portal

    v
    t
    e

    Bougainville campaign (1943–45)
    Empress Augusta Bay
    Battle of Empress Augusta Bay
    North Solomon Islands
    Francis Ona

References

    Saovana-Spriggs, Ruth (2000). "Christianity and women in Bougainville" (PDF). Development Bulletin (51): 58–60. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
    "EU Relations with Papua New Guinea". European Commission. Archived from the original on 9 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
    Will Marshall, "Papua New Guinea government obtains shaky weapons disposal pact in Bougainville", World Socialist Web Site, May 23, 2001. Accessed on line March 4, 2008.
    Medhora, Shalailah. "Papua New Guinea not told of Australia's plans for new diplomatic post there". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
    National Statistical Office of Papua New Guinea

Further reading

    Oliver, Douglas (1973). Bougainville: A Personal History. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.
    Oliver, Douglas (1991). Black Islanders: A Personal Perspective of Bougainville, 1937–1991. Melbourne: Hyland House.Repeats text from previous 1973 reference and updates with summaries of Papua New Guinea press reports on the Bougainville Crisis
    Quodling, Paul. Bougainville: The Mine And The People.
    Regan, Anthony and Griffin, Helga (eds.), ed. (2005). Bougainville Before the Crisis. Canberra: Pandanus Books.
    Pelton, Robert Young (2002). Hunter Hammer and Heaven, Journeys to Three World's Gone Mad. Guilford, Conn.: Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-416-6.
    Gillespie, Waratah Rosemarie (2009). Running with Rebels: Behind the Lies in Bougainville's hidden war. Australia: Ginibi Productions. ISBN 978-0-646-51047-7.

External links
    Wikimedia Commons has media related to Autonomous Region of Bougainville.

Bougainville travel guide from Wikivoyage

    Autonomous Bougainville Government
    Full text of the Peace Agreement for Bougainville
    Constitution of Bougainville
    UN Map #4089 — United Nations map of the vicinity of Bougainville Island, PDF format
    Conciliation Resources - Bougainville Project
    The Coconut Revolution, a documentary film about the Bougainville Revolutionary Army.
    Bougainville - Our Island, Our Fight(1998) by the multi-award winning director Wayne Coles-Janess. The first footage of the war from behind the blockade. The critically acclaimed and internationally award-winning documentary is shown around the world. Produced and directed by Wayne Coles-Janess. Production company: ipso-facto Productions
    ABC Foreign Correspondent- World in Focus - Lead Story (1997) Exclusive interview with Francis Ona. Interviewed by Wayne Coles-Janess.

    v
    t
    e

Papua New Guinea Provinces of Papua New Guinea

    Bougainville1
    Central
    Chimbu (Simbu)
    Eastern Highlands
    East New Britain
    East Sepik
    Enga
    Gulf
    Hela
    Jiwaka
    Madang
    Manus
    Milne Bay
    Morobe
    New Ireland
    Oro (Northern)
    Sandaun (West Sepik)
    Southern Highlands
    Western
    Western Highlands
    West New Britain

    National Capital District (Port Moresby)

    1 Autonomous region

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